Therapeutic Efficacy of Piperazine Ferulate Combined With Irbesartan in Diabetic Nephropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Abstract

Purpose

Irbesartan is widely used clinically in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy (DN). It is believed that piperazine ferulate (PF) combined with irbesartan could result in an improved efficacy in the treatment of DN. We present the latest meta-analysis that details the combination of PF and irbesartan therapy.

Methods

Before January 31, 2020, we searched various electronic databases for appropriate articles. Our search was not restricted by keyword or language. We then filtered all articles using certain criteria and assessed the quality of the qualified studies.

Findings

The meta-analysis included 12 trials that involved 1300 patients (650 in the experimental group and 650 in the control group). The ages of the patients ranged from 30 to 79 years. Compared with irbesartan alone, the total effective rate of PF combined with irbesartan was significantly higher (odds ratio [OR] = 4.95; 95% CI, 3.11–7.58; P < 0.0001). The blood glucose level was controlled by significantly decreasing the fasting plasma glucose level (mean difference [MD] = −1.40; 95% CI, −2.70 to −0.11; P = 0.03) and 2-h plasma glucose level (MD = −1.65; 95% CI, −2.49 to −0.82; P < 0.0001). The combination therapy significantly decreased the levels of serum creatinine (MD = −10.24; 95% CI, −15.25 to −5.23; P < 0.0001), 24-h urinary protein (MD = −0.07; 95% CI, −0.09 to −0.05; P < 0.0001), urinary albumin excretion rate (MD = −22.52; 95% CI, −30.20 to −14.84; P < 0.0001), urinary β2-microglobulin (MD = −0.15; 95% CI, −0.17 to −0.13; P < 0.0001), and blood urea nitrogen (MD = −1.54; 95% CI, −2.36 to −0.72; P = 0.0002), which was beneficial for improving and protecting renal function. The renal microcirculation was improved by significantly decreasing the whole blood viscosity low shear (MD = −1.41; 95% CI, −1.84 to −0.99; P < 0.0001), whole blood viscosity high shear (MD = −0.54; 95% CI, −0.63 to −0.45; P < 0.0001), whole blood viscosity (MD = −1.31; 95% CI, −1.79 to −0.83; P < 0.0001), whole blood reduction viscosity (MD = −1.42; 95% CI, −1.79 to −1.06; P < 0.0001), platelet aggregation rate (MD = −0.42; 95% CI, −0.50 to −0.35; P < 0.0001), plasma viscosity (MD = −13.02; 95% CI, −15.47 to −10.56; P < 0.0001), and fibrinogen content (MD = −0.25; 95% CI, −0.42 to −0.09; P = 0.003).

Implications

PF combined with irbesartan could improve the efficiency in the treatment of DN. However, these results should be handled carefully. These findings should be verified by several rigorous randomized controlled trials.

Introduction

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes. According to a previous report

  • Khan R.M.M.
  • Chua Z.J.Y.
  • Tan J.C.
  • Yang Y.
  • Liao Z.
From pre-diabetes to diabetes: diagnosis, treatments and translational research.